fauna: All the animals endemic to, or living in, an area are the fauna of that area
feral: A domesticated animal which has escaped or been released into the wild.
The term is also used to refer to colonies of previously domesticated animals.
feeding: Feeding mode that requires the intake of large amounts of planktonic organisms. Usually accomplished
by moving through the water with an open mouth or pumping water across some type capture apparatus
fins (on fish): Any spiny, rayed or fatty (adipose) appendage on fish. Fins may be paired or median. Paired fins
are ones that occur on each side of the fish. Median fins occur along the centerline of the body. Fish are often identified
by the presence, purpose or location of fins see pic
flipper: The modified fore limb of marine tetrapods
fish: any aquatic, gill breathing vertebrate with fins
ability of an organism to contribute its genes to future generations. There is no absolute measure of fitness, and it
is a relative term. Variable traits, which are coded for by genes, increase an organism's fitness (make it more fit).
Changes in the environment can change an organism's fitness
the tide condition/ state when the water is rising, when the next tide event is a high tide
flora: All the plants endemic to, or living in, an area are the flora of that area
fluke: The tail, caudal, or back fin, of marine mammals. The fluke is evolved from the tetrapod tail
frustule: see diatom
gamete: A haploid sex cell usually sperm or ovum
gastroderm: the inner tissue layer, makes up the digestive tract
Sub-grouping of the Mollusca. These are the snails, conchs, limpets, and whelks as well as shell-less forms like nudibranchs,
slugs, and sea hares
gene: A section of DNA that codes for a particular protien
drift: A factor in biological evolution that implies random changes in allelic frequency. This is more important
in smaller populations and more of a factor in allopatric speciation
gill: a vascular surface area used for O2 CO2 diffusion. Fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks have gills that
guyot: a seamount that was once above water, and shows the signs of erosion,
a flat topped sea mount
an organism lives, the environmental needs of an organism
hadal: Hadal refers to the deepest layers
of the ocean generally 6000m and below see picture
haploid: a state of having
one half the normal pair of chromosomes, unpaired chromosomes
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium: A state
of stability in a populations gene pool
hemoglobin: Oxygen binding respiratory pigment based on
the iron ion. Turns red when oxygenated. Common in vertebrates
binding respiratory pigment based on the copper molecule. Turns blue when oxygenated. Common in crustaceans and
herbivore: an organism that feeds primarily on photoautotrophs
(hermaphrodite) Animals which contain both mature male and female sex cells at some point within there life cycle
are said to be hermaphrodites. Animals which are females first and then become males are said to be protogynous hermaphrodites.
Animals which are males first and then become female are said to be protandrous hermaphrodites. Animals which contain mature
male and female sex cells at the same point in there life are said to be synchronous hermaphrodites
Gr. prefix meaning not the same, contrast with homeo
heterotherm: Any animal that has
a fluctuating body temperature, usually fluctuating with the environment. The term heterothermy is often used synonomously
with ectothermy (see ectothermy). This, however, is a mistake. For example, many large pelagic fishes, are able
to turn there body heat inward, and maintain a body core temperature several degrees above that of the environment.
Contrast with homeothermy
heterotroph: Any organism which derives energy from organic material
stored in the make up of other organisms is said to be a heteratroph. See also autotroph, consumer, predator and saphrobe
Hirudinea: (class) a subgroup of the phylum Annelida. Characterized by the absence of setae
and a specialized sucking mouth. They are mostly terrestrial. The leaches.
holoplankton: see plankton
homo- or homeo- Gr. Prefix similar, or the same, contrast with hetero
The tendency of organisms to maintain a stable internal environment
homeostatic mechanism: A
series of physiological processes that maintain homeostasis
homeotherm: Any animal which has a
constant body temperature. Usually different from that of the environment. The term Homeothermy and ectothermy
(see ectotherm) are often used synonomously. This, however, is a mistake. For example, a deep sea organism, living
in a constant environment, is a homeotherm. It does not fit the definition of an endotherm. Contrast
homologous: In evolution, when similar traits or morphologic characteristics
evolve to serve quite different purposes. An example would be the flippers of marine mammals compared to the limbs of
terrestrial vertebrates. In ancestral forms they where both used for movement on land, in the marine mammals,
the appendages became adapted to move through water. Contrast with Analogous. See also divergent evolution
hydrometer: device used to measure the specific gravity of a liquid sample, used to infer salinity
hypothesis: A testable statement of expected outcome of a study or experiment
ichthyo- Gr. prefix referring to fish as in ichthyophile, meaning, "fish lover."
immigration: when individuals come in to a population.
Contrast to emigration.
interstitial: small organisms that live between grains of sand
Isopoda: (order) Small common crustaceans characterized, generally, by one type of leg
where an organism may have multiple reproductive events within its lifetime. Reproductive effort is spread through multiple
k: See carrying capacity
k-selection: In ecology. Organisms that are adapted to a stable environment. k selected organisms
generally reproduce slowly, producing only the amount of young that the community can support. They are dependent on
a stable environment. Generally larger organisms, higher on the food chain tend to be k-selected. The term is
derived from the variable K which is used to denote the carrying capacity of a community. Contrast with r-selection
kelp: members of the group Phaophyta, the brown algae, that form large plantlike colonies.
The holdfast, stipe and frond are analogous to the root, stem and leaf of true plants. Although they may reach 200 feet
in length kelps lack true tissues.
keratin: a protein which makes the external surfaces of organisms
stiff or hard, as in the epidermis of vertebrates and the scales of fishes
krill: see Euphausiacea
larva: the young of an animal usually not morphologically
similar to the adult
lateral line: a series of pores along the sides of fishes that sense pressure
lectitrophic: larval forms that get their energetic needs from yolk, more energy is
spent in the development of each larvae, time in the plankton, dispersal time, is reduced
one of four primary types of organic molecules serves as energy storage and in cellular construction
zone: This is generally the region near the ocean shore that is exposed during low tides and covered during high
tides, between the high and low tide lines. There is also a supralittoral zone which includes areas above the high tide line
which is affected by the ocean in the form of salt spray or tidal swash and a sublittoral zone which includes the areas from
the low tide line to the edge of the continental shelf see pic
lung: An internal air sack that allows for the diffusion of oxygen in to the circulatory system.
The vertebrate lung develops as a branch of the embryonic digestive system, homologous to the swim bladder in bony fishes